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Massive and high-dimensional numerical (or continuous) data may visualized using parallel coordinates. For a technical discussion of parallel coordinates see [Weg90]. In parallel coordinates, axes are drawn parallel to one another (as opposed to drawn orthogonal to one another). A vector (or row) of data, \((x_1, x_2, \ldots, x_n)\), is plotted by drawing \(x_1\) on axis 1, \(x_2\) on axis 2, and so on through \(x_n\) on axis n. The plotted points are joined by a broken line. The use of parallel coordinates to visualize massive and high-dimensional data is often a first step in exploratory data analysis EDA where one may wish to visually identify patterns, clusters, or outliers. Towards the purpose of EDA, a generalized rotation of the coordinate axes in high-dimensional space, referred to as the Grand Tour [EJW02], may be used in combination with hue and saturation brushing techniques [EJW96].

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title={zava, Parallel Coordinates with Grand Tour},
author={Jee Vang},


Jee Vang, Ph.D.

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